Why did the Persian king of the sea scourge?

At the same time, important preparatory and economic measures were carried out for the unhindered movement of troops. One such event was the construction of a bridge over the Bosphorus, in order to transfer the main forces of the army from Asia to Europe by land. But when the decree was issued about the beginning of the invasion of the Persians in Greece, there was an embarrassment: the storm that had risen destroyed the bridge erected for the crossing.

This news infuriated Xerxes, and the bridge builders were executed. Xerxes also ordered that the waters of the Bosphorus be flooded and the shackles lowered into it as a sign that the Bosphorus had become a slave to the king of the Persians. Even nature itself was subjected to punishment, having received, as historians say, 300 scourge strikes.

It is considered that the court can create only those who are endowed with the appropriate powers for this purpose, stipulating the size of power law. Usually it is the head of state or persons authorized by him. The original purpose of punishment is a measure of coercion in order to force a person or an animal to behave properly in accordance with the generally accepted rules of conduct.

Under the established system of punishment, slaves and serfs had the right to punish their masters. Children for different offenses and now parents are punished. Employees are punished for poor-quality work. Soldiers are punished for misdemeanors by their commanders.

In the case described, the sea was punished, an inanimate object. Xerxes was the son of Darius I and Atossa, daughter of Cyrus the Great, the first king of the Achaemenid state. Apparently, Xerxes was convinced that, by becoming king by the will of God Ahura Mazda, who was worshiped by the Persians, he could speak on behalf of this god and create a “court of God” - to punish all things subject to God, even inanimate objects.

In history there was already established practice of punishing inanimate objects. For example, in ancient Greece, when, after the ceremony of sacrifice, an ax was exposed to the court of the archon, which killed the victim. The priest, who sacrificed an animal, threw the murder weapon on the ground and quickly ran away from the place of sacrifice. After a brief ostentatious chase and attempts to catch the "criminal", people around him took an ax and carried it to court, where the judge declared the ax criminal and sentenced him to expulsion from the city. At the end of the trial, the “criminal” ax was thrown abroad.

However, in the field of punishment of criminals, in our opinion, he succeeded most of all in sophisticated ways to instill respect for the law by another Persian ruler - Artaxerxes, who did not kill or punish his officials. Those who were guilty were stripped naked, and their clothes were beaten with whips and sticks, the high caps were knocked to the ground with a stick.

It is not known what associations a nobleman, who had been punished, experienced at that moment. And what internal sensations did he have when he watched as they stomped on his clothes, which he then wore. But the view of a flying cudgel, which is unknown how it will act, flying over the guilty one: it will take only a cap with it or knock it together with its head, I think, will make any ruler respect.

In Persia, however, lawsuits were committed when it was commonplace to punish animals for biting someone. And perhaps from here there remains the practice of cutting the ears of dogs. Lawsuits involving animals, carried out in ancient Rome and Greece, we can see in the works of ancient authors, for example, Apuleius was judged by a donkey. In another place (Italy) a donkey was tried for the same moral crimes, which, however, was acquitted after the petition of a priest.

Wild animals were tried by the ecclesiastical courts. Animals were assigned lawyers who defended them in court, and they say that the decisions of such courts were often executed. Rodents and insects left the disputed territories and moved to places designated by the court. You can write hundreds of thousands of pages about the hordes and the “courts of God” that the Inquisition produced, then not only people were punished, but also the animals that were hung, burned at the stake and subjected to other types of destruction.

Unusual punishments still exist in Europe in the form of a trial of animals that were tried in criminal courts and punished with death if a crime was proved. It was possible to see in the official documents of jurisprudence records of such content: “Name: Jimmy. Occupation: monkey. Position: justified. " Or such a record that a pig is sentenced to death, and her children are freed from punishment for being young.

By the beginning of the XVIII century, the indicative animal trials in Europe with the imposition of the death penalty ceased. But animal trials are still ongoing. In 1924, a Labrador was tried in Pennsylvania who picked up a cat. The state of passion did not save the dog, who was sentenced to life imprisonment in the state prison of Philadelphia, where the dog had a personal prisoner number and died of old age.

Not so long ago, the radio reported that the court had made a decision to evict a cat for having visited the bathroom without the permission of its neighbors. In administering animal justice, it was believed that animal punishments were intended to encourage owners to carefully look after their animals and keep them from criminal acts.

Unusual punishment of criminals existed in Russia ...

Watch the video: The rise and fall of the Assyrian Empire - Marian H Feldman (November 2019).

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