If a person has a musical ear, then he can tune or tune his guitar by ear - first “string to string”, and then, playing a tune or chords, notice which string sounds wrong and adjust its tension. If there is a so-called “absolute pitch”, then, in principle, such a unique person can tune each string separately and independently from the others ... but these are lyrics. In life, everything is not so perfect.
Let's try to proceed from the fact that a person does not have a hearing. Therefore, it is useless for him to explain that between strings (except 2−3) there should be a quart, and between the 2nd and 3rd - a large third. Yes, and do not need it. It is clear that each string should sound like a kind of reference.
The simplest is to download a computer program. There is such a thing - enter the string number, play it into the microphone, and the computer “says” - pull the string stronger or weaker. Practice - the program is not bad ... but the computer is not always at hand.
The second method is the use of resonance. In physics, there is a phenomenon - a resonance. Its essence is as follows: each string has its own oscillation frequency. This frequency depends on the tension force and the string material, and determines the sound emitted by the string. If the neighboring string sounds with a certain frequency (follow the thought), then pulses (sound waves and body oscillations) with a frequency equal to the frequency of oscillations of the neighboring string affect our string through the air and the body of the guitar. If the frequency of these pulses is equal to the natural frequency of the string, then our string will begin to vibrate at the same frequency as the neighboring string. We can even gently squeeze the next string with our finger and listen to the “echo” sounding “our” string.
So, if there is no computer at hand, we use the following scheme:
We adjust the 1st string by sensations — simply so that it is sufficiently tight enough and at the same time does not cut the fingers while clamping for 7–10 frets. It makes sense to tune the first string to a certain standard only if you play simultaneously with another instrument. For a simple game, simply pull it.
The rest of the strings are as follows (see the figure). First, alternately, from the 2nd to the 6th string, we clamp the string on the fret where the yellow dot stands and by the “resonance” method we compare it with the neighboring string (for example, the 2nd string on the 5th fret = 1st string, 3rd on 4th = 2nd, etc.). Of course, we tighten or weaken the clamped string, but not free sound.
So, let's say tuned all the strings. Then repeat the procedure again. The fact is that with the tension of one string, all the others are weakened (not much, of course, but it influences the sound). Passed the second time - you can see the third. It will not take a lot of time, but the setting will be almost immaculate. Now we look at matching the strings “through one”. Clamping the strings where the blue dots stand, we should get the sound of the string next to the next one (-2 strings). For example, the 3rd string on the 9th fret = 1st string, etc. You can also tune the guitar on the green and red points (-3 and -4 strings, respectively), but, as a rule, there is no such need and dots are marked for general development.
Here, as you can see, hearing is not required - just watch the string tremble, and the trick is in the bag. But still try these indirect checks:
The 1st and 6th strings should sound “nice” - do not cut the ear. They are separated by 2 octaves, and any sounds through the octave sound harmoniously, in some way the same. That is why a “smooth” sound should come out when comparing the first string and the 4th, clamped on the 2nd fret. The 5th string from the first one should not cut the ear either.
I wonder how applicable this is ... What do you think? The opinion of those who know how to tune a guitar is also interesting ...